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The Hebrews Commentary Project


Hebrews 1:1-2

  1. Michael Cruz
  2. William Oosterman
  3. Jim McClarty
  4. John D.Romann
  5. David Summerford
  6. Kevin Hartley
  7. Joe Terrell
  8. Mark McCulley
  9. Maurice Bergeron
  10. Tim Clifton
  11. Del Blanchard

Hebrews 1:1-2

1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,  2  Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

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1. Michael Cruz

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (1:1)

Here we are given the very nature and essence of the Old Covenant. Notice that the Old Covenant is typified by somewhat looser constraints as evidenced in verses such as Romans 3:25 and Acts 17:30. In direct contrast to what many teach today, the Old Covenant was more forgiving (in many ways) to allow for the variety of methodology by which God communicated. Not that God was ever imperfect, but He was saving the best for last which was a part of His perfect plan; it was not something that was a result of God reaching a point of frustration and then deciding to send His son.


Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:2)

Yes, the New Covenant has tighter constraints in which there is no forgiveness outside of Christ's atoning sacrifice. In this last and final covenant He has communicated to us in the most perfect way possible. He has given us His Son who is the embodiment of all wisdom and knowledge and who speaks through His loving sacrifice for our sin. I am not generally a promoter of contemporary Christian music but there is a song by Michael Card entitled, "The Final Word," that gives a great illustration of this verse. One line of the song is, "When the Father's wisdom wanted to communicate His love, He spoke it in one final perfect Word. He spoke the incarnation...." In other words, the incarnation and resulting atonement was the act of God speaking to His people in the person and work of Jesus Christ. Another line in the song states, "...eternity stepped into time so we could understand."  God stepped out of the glory and majesty and humbled Himself so that a bunch of sinners deserving of eternal condemnation would not have to pay the just penalty for their deeds. No man's love can amount to that! With that in mind, we should certainly be willing to be servants of God rather than man.

From: Michael Cruz
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2. William Oosterman

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (1:1)

I would not change all the variety of OT revelation, and all of the experiences recorded as God spoke to every one of the various heroes of the faith, for one word from THE SON, my anchor within the veil, who speaks through the cross, from the empty grave, and from God's right hand.


Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:2)

The last days, His day become our days, and the Word is so clearly seen, heard, handled, touched, and worshipped. Perhaps because it is late evening, I feel less like commenting and more like asking a question: I know He has spoken through the Son, through the Word, but how often do I, in truth, hear His voice? When last has He spoken and I have been calm enough to hear Him?  Do I read the Word and hear the words or does my soul recognize His voice?

From: William Oosterman
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3. Jim McClarty

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:1,2)

I prefer to view these two verses as one; they were originally a sentence from the author and I don't care for the division mid-thought. The primary ideas that leap from this verse are:

  1. From Genesis 1, when God created the Heavens and earth, to John 1, where we are introduced to the Logos, or speaking agency of God's creative work, to Hebrews 1:1, we see the magnificent condescension of God from His singular and self-sufficient glory down to the earth and finally down to individual men. In the past that speaking was done to prophets who spoke on God's behalf, but they spoke words that were given to them--placed in their mouths, so to speak. But, finally, the very authority from Heaven which spoke the words, "Let there be light," and it was so, has come down among us and spoken His own words. In fact, He not only spoke those words, He was the living, incarnate Word. And He stooped all the way from Glory to speak to miserable, lost sinners....like me.
  2. The "last days" reference does not appear to be an eschatological reference.  In other words, the subject here is not about "end time" things, so it's pointless to use this verse to create an "end times" argument. The "last days" reference in verse 2 is a contrast to the phrase "at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past" in verse one.  In the past God spoke by one means, but in these more recent days (the end of the "speaking by prophets days"), He spoke by His Son.
  3. The Son is appointed heir of all things--of thrones, dominion, judgment, power, authority, and ever-lasting righteousness.  "Every knee will bow...."  And, the wonderful promise attached to that truth is we will share in that inheritance--

The spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God, and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. (Rom.8:16-17)

CONCLUSION: The very Voice of God who spoke all things into existence has reached out of eternity into time and inhabited the person of Jesus Christ.  That Voice is the final authority speaking the very words of God, which are His own words. The time of the prophets speaking to the people on God's behalf has passed and the final Word on spiritual life and our Heavenly destiny has been spoken. He began all things and is heir to all things. The Son of God has spoken and it's final:

"...This is my Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him."

From: Jim McClarty
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4. John D.Romann

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:1,2)

Christ being "heir of all things" brings the following verses to mind:
Hebrews 2:11,

For both He who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren,

and Galatians 4:7,

Therefore you are no longer a slave,but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God.

From: John D. Romann
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5. David Summerford

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (1:1)

a) GOD...  In the beginning God.  As the most sacred of books to the Hebrews (the Torah) begins with what God did, the book to the Hebrews begins at this familiar starting place.

b) GOD...SPAKE...  God has been pleased to reveal himself to us. He has a written witness. And even more so than was said of E.F. Hutton...when God speaks we should listen. Hebrews 1:1 is a shining light to remind us that God has a word. It is a joyful reminder that the Bible is the Word of God.

c) GOD SPAKE AT SUNDRY TIMES...  It was God's divine prerogative to speak when he saw fit. Mt. Sinai experiences did not occur every day (and it took a long time for it to occur). Sometimes one book of the bible covers 400 years of time (e.g. Judges), and sometimes 4 books cover just 40 years (Exodus-Deut.). Yet, we trust that God speaks when he wants to speak. Even though there had been 400 years of silence since He spoke through Malachi, it was well within His modus operandi to speak again through John The Baptist and Jesus.

d) IN DIVERS MANNERS... The lesson Elijah learned was sometimes God speaks in the still small voice and not by the earthquake, wind, or fire. God spoke audibly sometimes, in dreams sometimes, in vision sometimes, by angels, by burning bushes, by voices in the night, by farmers, and even--in a way that humbles any pastor--by a jack ass.

e) TO THE PROPHETS... The writer of the Hebrews was specially guided in this word.  Moses said a prophet, greater than he, was to one day appear. The prophet is the mouth piece of God. The prophet had authority. This was the wonder question about Jesus so many times in the gospels...Is this the prophet? Prophet has two meanings: forth teller and fore teller. The second definition is important. The OT prophets speak of the coming NT Prophet and tell of his life. Remember what Moses and Elijah were conversing about when on the Mount of transfiguration.


Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; 1:2)

a) Last Days...  God has different epochs of time. The last age is the age of Christ. Later in this Hebrew letter this age is called the time of reformation. Joel prophesied of a "glory in the last days." Peter declared it to be fulfilled in his generation at Pentecost.

b) Spoken unto us by His Son...  Much of the Hebrew letter is written as comparison. It is a letter full of, "Behold a Greater than Solomon is here." Like the wine at the feast in the first miracle, God saved the best for last. As the voice from heaven told Peter at the mount of transfiguration, "...This is my beloved Son, ...HEAR YE HIM."
bi) What confidence we are to have in the Son...As he told his disciples on the night of his betrayal, "...Ye believe in God believe also in me.  ...if it were not so, I would have told you..." (John 14:1ff).

c) The attributes and graces of the Son are the same as the attributes and graces of the Father:
c1) He owns all things;
c2) He created all things.

From: David Summerford
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6. Kevin Hartley

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:1,2)

Dealt with as a unit, these two verses present to us the dominant theme of the book of Hebrews, the superiority of Christ in this, the New Covenant.  The author, in the onset of this epistle, makes three specific points:
1) Singularity;  2) Sufficiency;   3) Superiority.

First, singularity.  
We have a distinct contrast drawn by the author between the 'time past' and these 'last days.'  This is evidenced further when the adverbial phrase, "at various times and sundry ways," is contrasted with the prepositional phrase, "by the Son."  Simply, in the previous age God spoke in diverse manners to the fathers and has in these last of days spoken to us with the singular person of the Lord Jesus Christ. The use of the aorist verb 'laleo' in both clauses "indicates that God has finished speaking in both cases."1

Thus Christ is the final, culminative, singular voice of this the last day, in comparison to the various and sundry messages of old. Immediately such a statement exalts the superiority and sufficiency of the Son in His message, over and against that of the prophets of old. Therefore, we address next, Christ's sufficiency.  

Second, sufficiency. 
With the culminative aorist for the verb 'laleo,' we have the completed message of God in this the last days. Christ is the sole and superior agency of communication from God in these last days. Again, contrasting Christ with the prophetic message of old, the author stresses the complete sufficiency of the message of the Son with the nonarticular anarthrous noun 'Son.'  As Hughes states, "the anarthrous noun serves to emphasize the absolute change of category to that of sonship."2

How far superior and sufficient is a message spoken by a Son to that of a message spoken by a mere ambassador and servant! A commissioned prophet could never speak with the fullness and force of the very Son of God Himself. Consider how this same contrast is drawn out in the parable of the vine dresser in Matthew 21, where the householder, addressing the greater authority, position, and sufficiency of His Son, says of His Son, "Then last of all he sent his son to them, saying, 'they will respect my son'" (Matthew 21:37). Therefore, we see that the author of Hebrews, with the mention of divine Sonship, has declared that what God has spoken through the Son far exceeds in sufficiency the message of the prophets. This is further demonstrated with the inclusion of the relative clauses that follow the prepositional phrase. He is not just a messenger, but He is the Son of God; "...whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds..."  Thus the Son's superiority is demonstrated.

Third, superiority.
Consider then the superiority of this, the New Covenant and its messenger, where the mediator is not a commissioned prophet as Moses, but the very Son of God Himself. Moses did with expectation and anticipation await this new day of prophecy:

The Lord your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your midst, from your brethren. 'Him you shall hear,'  (Deuteronomy 18:15)

Moses found his delight in the promise of the coming messenger, superior to him in sufficiency and singularity.  He did with heightened anticipation await that day in faith, knowing that what was to come far exceeded what was in his day. How much more then have we a message of sufficiency in Christ, considering His superiority to all that came before?

We have the Son Himself. He has spoken of His Father. Consider how greatly Paul in Galatians contrasts us, the members of the New Covenant and household of God, to the servants of the household under the Old Covenant, saying,

Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ. (Galatians 3: 7)

If we far exceed those of old in this new position as sons, how far superior is the very Son of God Himself to all that came before?

The use of the phrase "upon these last days" indicates the promised and realized "eschatological time of the Messiah."3  The days of old were marked by anticipation and expectation, noting that there was a better day coming. Realization and fulfillment mark this the new day. All that was hoped for and spoken of by those of old has met its end in Christ. If their message of old was to be the goal of Christ, how then did they declare the very superiority of this the last days?

To conclude, Christ is the singular, sufficient, and superior spokesman of God in this, the last days. He is not just a servant or messenger of God, He is His (God's) own Son. He excels and exceeds all those who spoke of old. His message exceeds and excels all which was spoken of old. How blessed is our day of accomplished realization. We have no longer shadows and concealed messages, we have the most glorious view through this, our New Covenant.

To apply these truths:

  1. What cause for thanks is ours to hear the Son speak, to know that God has so chosen to speak to us, His elect, through His Son? What a message--blood and water and spirit. What a witness of mercy and justice meeting and kissing in the Son. Ah, must we not kiss the Son, lest we perish? We have no shadow of such a message of mercy and justice as those of old; we have no messenger who has perished; but we have the eternal Son of God who has spoken.  What a precious gift is yet ours in the Son!
  2. What cause is then given to cast off all the relics of the Old Covenant for this most perfect and complete message of the Son? Knowing His superiority, sufficiency, and singularity, how far more delightful is the day than the night?  Yes, the message of old is good, for in it we see the anticipation of Christ, but how much more joyful is it to look Him now in the face?
  3. What cause for study, to think that the Son of the household has spoken? Who better to speak of the Father; who better to listen to; who better to know Him?
  4. What cause to heed His words, considering He is the very Son of God Himself? His authority, His majesty, His deity--how shall we not readily hear Him?

May He be so merciful as to give us a desire to hear Him. Amen.

1Philip Edgecumbe Hughes, A Commentary on the Epistle of Hebrews,
(Eerdmans: Grand rapids), 1977, p. 37.
2Ibid, p. 36.
3Ibid, p. 37.

From: Kevin Hartley
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7. Joe Terrell

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (1:1)

God is a communicating God, and for this we should be thankful, seeing that we would know nothing of Him unless He communicated that material to us. In all things, God is communicating His nature to those who will hear; even His creation is a declaration of "His eternal power and Godhead," and sufficiently clear is God in that revelation that all are rendered without excuse.

But the writer (whose identity we do not know and cannot establish with certainty) has God's special revelation in mind. God has, at all times, had spokesmen: He spoke to them, and they, in turn, related God's message to others. Whenever God spoke, He spoke of His Son in one fashion or another, bit by bit revealing the work of grace he would do for His chosen people.  From his first words to fallen Adam through the final sentence spoken by Malachi, God's speaking was concerning His Son (John 5:39; Luke 24:44).


Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:2)

In times past, God spoke OF or ABOUT His Son: now He speaks BY His Son. According to some, "the last days" refers not to the last days of eschatology, but the last days of God's speaking. God has said nothing new since He spoke by His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. This finality of God's speech is not because God is angry, but simply because the Son has perfectly revealed the Father, and there is nothing more to say; at least, nothing more we need to know for this life. What we shall learn in the next life, only God knows.

The Son has always been the revealer of God.  By this we mean more than He is the one who speaks about God. Rather, we mean that Christ, IN HIS PERSON, reveals God. We may say, "God is love."  But Christ IS the God who is love. We may preach about the sovereignty of God, but Christ IS the sovereign God.  Even the Spirit of God instructs in the things of God, as the Spirit of  Truth, by "taking from what is [Christ's] and showing it to us." He who would learn God must learn Christ. Most, if not all, spiritual error and heresy comes from a deficient or erroneous view of Christ. Since to whatever degree a man knows Christ he knows God, to whatever degree he is in error concerning Christ, he does not know God. In Christ we behold both the goodness and severity of God, the grace and justice, the wrath and mercy.

The final words of verse two reveal Christ's place in this creation: He is the one toward which all things are moving, and the one by whom all things began. It is little wonder that our world is so entrenched in false religion, corruption, and rebellion: it is willfully ignorant of those two facts. So long as religious men preach the salvation of sinners as the primary concern of God and bow to the dogma of the scientific priesthood who insist that this world began by the mechanistic processes of evolution, there is no hope that God shall be known and loved. If we are to be heralds of the One by whom God fully reveals Himself, then we must boldly preach:

by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created BY him, and FOR him. (Col. 1:16)

Within the scope of these two verses, the writer has already introduced us to the theme of his work; it is more important than the abrogation of the law or the superiority of the New Covenant over the Old:  He sets forth the preeminence and superiority of Jesus Christ. Once that is established, the other points are easy.

From: Joe Terrell
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8. Mark McCulley

  God spake... (1:2a)

My atheist friend says this is nothing but "anthropomorphism."  He laughs when I read "the Word was with God and the Word was God" (John 1). But "God speaking" is not only a metaphor.  When God said, "Let there be light," His word was not without effect.  God acts when God speaks so that we have no choice but to answer.
"Where are you?  "What have you done?"
God speaks, so our opinions are not the authority.
God speaks, so our dreams are not reliable.
God speaks, so our duty is to obey what God commands.
God speaks, so God is a person not an abstract invention.
God speaks at different times, so God is not timeless.
God speaks so we do not have to go some place to see God.
We hear God; we do not see God.
God speaks.
God does not send pictures.
God does not go on TV.
Even the miracles show that God speaks.
Even what the apostles saw was so they would listen.
As the stones with the ten words got broken, so Jesus was heard enough to offend enough to get broken, so Jesus is not heard except in the cross. Matthew 17:5, God speaks: "This is my son.... Listen TO HIM!"
Matthew 28:20, "...teach them to obey what I said...."
One particular Human Son. God still didn't send pictures, but God did send Himself--incarnate, visible among us. Now, how will we answer?

From: mark mcculley
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9. Maurice Bergeron

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (1:1)

With the clear statement of God’s doings among the sons of men throughout the ages, I’m as curious as the Psalmist when he questioned, “What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him?" (Psalm 8:4). This is all the more astonishing when we consider the tragic history of those sent by God in ages past. Listen carefully to our Lord’s words in Matthew’s gospel chapter 21, verses 33 through 41.

Hear another parable:
    "There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country: And when the time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they might receive the fruits of it. And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another. Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them likewise. But last of all he sent unto them his son, saying, 'They will reverence my son.'
    But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, 'This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.'  And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him.
    When the lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen?
    They say unto him, 'He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons.'"


Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (1:2)

Here the writer would have us consider God’s Son. Our Lord is described by the writer as the heir and creator of all things. By the command of His voice, and His voice alone, all things exist. As the Word of God, He tells out the mind and the heart of the Father to man. He is the great Communicator.

In John’s gospel, chapter 17, verses 4ff,  we have Jesus’s very own testimony as to what He has spoken/declared of the Father, through either word, or deed:

I have glorified thee on the earth:
 I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.
 I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest
     me out of the world: thine they were;
 I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me;
 I have kept...those that thou gavest me;
 I have given them thy word;
 I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it:

Is it any wonder that the Father glorifies the Son.  What was His purpose?

that the love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them,
and I in them.

Well done good and faithful Servant!

From: Maurice Bergeron
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10. Tim Clifton

God... (1:1)

        a) It must be pointed out that although applications can be made according to our 'systems' and entrenched theologies,  the interpretation of this book will needs be distinctively Jewish in flavor (Messianic Jewish in particular) and directed toward a true commentary of the new covenant of Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel etc.  Watch the logic of the book from a Jewish standpoint turn and end on the blood of an everlasting covenant, obtained by Messiah Himself, whom they had been taught to look for all their lives.  The book is thus not proving to them that Messiah is superior;  they already knew that, but instead showing the logic of how, through that superiority, they can give up what is engrained in every Jew, "...but we are Abraham's seed,"  for the promised new covenant. Thus the book takes us on a Jewish trip from Sinai to the New Jerusalem, with the better covenant being our ticket, and Messiah, Himself, being our guide from start to finish, because He has not changed and is, from everlasting to everlasting, very God!

        b)  Thus, the readers already believe that 'God IS.'  I think these two verses are a way to explain to these Hebrews something that might be hard to understand, and yet must be accepted to receive Christ for whom He really is.  Also engrained in them is "the Lord our God is ONE."   How then can the Trinity be logically taught?  It will be done by starting Hebrews as does Genesis,  "In the beginning God created..."  "Ah Lord GOD! behold, thou hast made the heaven and the earth ...!"   But we see that "By Christ Jesus were the worlds made."  Now the composite unity of the Hebrew language can in Genesis allow Christ to be God, i.e. "let US make man in OUR image."  The Father, the Spirit, and now the Lords' Christ all now fit into Genesis 1, and are also all the beginning of Hebrews.  The Father can certainly in this Hebrew sense say, "Thy throne, O God...."


...who at sundry times and in divers manners... (1:1b)

There are two sides to every coin, and the other side to this one is this thought:  God is by no means obligated to be consistent according to our reckoning.  He will act when He wants to, and there will be times when He will NOT act, even if it seems 'unfair' to us.  His manners too are diverse.'   He is not obligated to give His Word to anyone, and in fact will not do so, if history be our guide.  If He does us a favor, AMEN, but don't complain when He doesn't act the same toward everyone or every place.


...His Son .. BY whom also he made the worlds; (1:2)

"For by him were all things created ... And he is before all things, and by him all things consist."  "All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made."

Christ is God, and the Jewish sense of Hebrews will show this several times in chapter one alone.  But there is a sense other than composite unity that any Jehovah's Witness today will be quick to change to. It is that 'THROUGH' Him were things created.  Since the word can be translated either way, it is the sense and context that is critical.

Were the worlds made BY God the Son, or did a greater God make the worlds 'through' the son.  I checked the New World Translation, and it is carefully changed in every place I looked.  The worlds, to them, were not made by Christ, but through Him.  This false sense can be seen in Origen's Commentary on John, where he also quotes Heracleon, Fragment 1, on John 1:3,

In John 1:3,  "All things were made through Him," means that it was the Word who caused the Craftsman (Demiurge) to make the world; that is, it was not the Word  "from whom"or "by whom," but the one "through whom" (all things were made).   It was not the Word who made all things, as if he were energized by another, for "through  whom" means that another made them and the Word provided the energy.

Gill points out in his introduction to Hebrews that it (Hebrews) has been denied to be authentic by some heretics, as the Marcionites and Arians, but has been generally received as such by the orthodox:

And why wouldn't they? Hebrews makes Jesus God!  That verse 2 calls Christ "God" is again shown in Heb 2:10,

For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.

  The sense is 'by' here as well as elsewhere.

Jesus Christ is God manifest in the flesh, and Hebrews 1:1,2 starts to explain this to a Jewish audience in a Jewish sense and will continue to do so throughout the book. This old battle is still fresh, and we dare not ignore it.


Jesus Christ is the creator, and to a Hebrew mindset, he is the self existent one, the great I AM, the same yesterday, today, and forever.  He thus will displace whatever God has done heretofore with the Jewish nation for a better way.

From: Tim Clifton
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1l. Del Blanchard

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (1:1)

God used to speak through the prophets, but now has spoken the new covenant one time through Jesus Christ.  I like Malachi 3:1,2 telling the people in advance that he is coming, even the Messenger of the covenant:

Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts. But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap.

This Jesus is the holy God to whom Job spoke. It is interesting how Job
responded to God (in Job 42:5,6) when he saw him.

I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee. Wherefore I ABHOR MYSELF and REPENT in dust and ashes.

If a person has not experienced this to some extent, God has not spoken to him at all. God may have spoken to us by his Son, but the result is still the same. A person comes to see how holy God is and how wretched he is in God's sight. He begins to fear God in a reverent way.


...whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds: (1:2b)

This is He whom the sinner sees when he looks to God for help. Jesus was given all things, and that includes us, the elect of God. He came to save the elect and to give us a new covenant.

From: Del Blanchard
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